ID Country typeI typeII Common name Taxonomy Regional distribution Possible origin Possible way of introduction Habitat Impact
0 China Plants and phytoplankton Saccharina japonica Kelp Ochrophyta, Phaeophyceae, Laminariales, Laminariaceae China: most coastal areas, including Huanghai Sea Japan Intentional introduction for aquaculture Marine areas at about 2 m deep, with summer seawater temperatures not exceeding 20° C for a prolonged period China is the largest kelp producer, and S. japonica brings great economic benefits. On the other hand, this species also occupies niches and biotopes of native species,and this may lead to suppression and displacement of other species
1 China Plants and phytoplankton Macrocystis pyrifera Giant kelp Ochrophyta, Phaeophyceae, Laminariales, Laminariaceae China: Coastal areas from Dalian to Changdao Island Mexico Intentional introduction for aquaculture Shallow waters (5-25 m deep) This species improves the coastal environment, providing food and habitat for marine organisms. It changes the structure,function and biodiversity of the marine ecosystem
2 China Plants and phytoplankton Undaria pinnatifida Asian kelp Ochrohyta, Phaeophyceae, Laminariales, Alariaceae China: coastal areas of Liaoning, Shandong
and Jiangsu provinces (cited after: http://zlg.
kepu.gov.cn)
Japan Intentiuonal introduction for aquaculture U. pinnatifida inhabits intertidal zone down to a depth of 15–20m. It grows on hard substrata such as rocks and reefs U. pinnatifida brings great economic benefits, while filial
generation of kelps may lead to genetic changes of both
native and alien marine species in China
3 China Plants and phytoplankton Desmarestia ligulata Color changer Ochrophyta, Phaeophyceae, Desmarestiales,Desmarestiaceae China: Dalian, Lushun, and Shandong provinces Japan Possibly dispersed with the introduction
of Undaria pinnatifida(Harvey)Suringar,1873.
Rocks and shells in the low intertidal down to the upper
subtidal zones in moderately sheltered to fully exposed
coastal areas. This species often lives in kelp forest of other species.
Acid is excreted when this algae is dying, and it may lead to mortality of other algae and marine organisms
4 Japan Plants and phytoplankton Cutleria multifida (Turner) Greville Flat wipe-seaweed Ochrophyta, Phaeophyceae, Cutleriales, Cutieriaceae Japan: western Kyusyu, Ehime Pref., Hiroshima
Pref., Mie Pref., Noto Peninsula (western Honshu).
Europe Ship hull-fouling Embayment waters Unknown
5 Japan Plants and phytoplankton Ulva fasciata Ribbon sea lettuce Chlorophyta, Ulvophyceae, Ulvales, Ulvaceae Japan: Pacific coast of central to southern Honshu,
southern coast of the NOWPAP area, and
Okinawa Archipelago
Southwest Pacific? ballast water, ship hull-fouling. Rocky shore unknown
6 China Plants and phytoplankton Spartina alterniflora Smooth cordgrass; saltmarsh cordgrass Magnoliophyta, Liliopsida, Poales, Poaceae China: coastal areas from Liaoning to Jiangsu Province unknown (native range – Atlantic coast of North America). aquaculture; ballast water intertidal zone and estuarine tidal flats Spartina alterniflora occupies niches of native species, destroys habitat and threatens local biodiversity. They also clog waterways, affecting water exchange and cause red tide. Competition with native marsh reed
7 Japan Plants and phytoplankton Spartina alterniflora Smooth cordgrass; saltmarsh cordgrass Magnoliophyta, Liliopsida, Poales, Poaceae Japan: Mikawa Bay, Ariake Bay unknown (native range – Atlantic coast of North America). aquaculture; ballast water intertidal zone and estuarine tidal flats Spartina alterniflora occupies niches of native species, destroys habitat and threatens local biodiversity. They also clog waterways, affecting water exchange and cause red tide. Competition with native marsh reed
8 China Plants and phytoplankton Spartina anglica Common cordgrass Angiospermae, Graminales, Poaceae China: coastal areas of Jiangsu Province United Kingdom Aquaculture It grows on mud-flats and in salt marshes, estuarine wetlands, shorelines, etc., near the high tide mark Common cordgrass may destroy habitat for coastal living, and clog waterways, affecting water exchange
9 Japan Plants and phytoplankton Heterocapsa circularisquama   Dinophyta, Dinophyceae, Peridiniales Japan: Western main Japanese islands and
Ohama Bay, estern Japan
Southwest Pacific? Ballast water Embayment waters Mortality of cultured mollusks and fishes
10 Japan Animals Ficopomatus enigmaticus Crab-inhabited tube-worm Annelida, Polychaeta, Canalipalpata, Serpulidae Japan: Miyagi Prefecture, Pacific coast from Ibaraki Prefecture to Mikawa Bay, Seto Inland Sea, Shimane Prefecture and northern Kyushu, Ishigaki Island Australia Ship hull-fouling, ballast water Shallow hard substrata in estuarine waters. A species of the small xanthid crab occasionally inhabits its tube Bio-fouling on oyster culture, compete with native serpulid species
11 Japan Animals Hydroides elegans Calcareous tube-worm; piled tube-worm Annelida, Polychaeta, Canalipalpata, Ser Japan: Pacific coast of Honshu and Shikoku,
northern Kyushu
Southwest Pacific? Ballast water This tube-worm occurs on artificial hard substrata and oyster shell in enclosed subtidal waters. In Russia, it is a dominant biofouling species of vessels, especially in Vladivostok Port (Zolotoy Rog Bay). Mortality of aquaculture shells and fishes, biofouling
12 Russia Animals Hydroides elegans Calcareous tube-worm; piled tube-worm Annelida, Polychaeta, Canalipalpata, Ser Russia: Peter the Great B Southwest Pacific? Ballast water This tube-worm occurs on artificial hard substrata and oyster shell in enclosed subtidal waters. In Russia, it is a dominant biofouling species of vessels, especially in Vladivostok Port (Zolotoy Rog Bay). Mortality of aquaculture shells and fishes, biofouling
13 Japan Animals Hydroides dianthus Nadeshiko-kanzashi; Pink (a plant of genus Dianthus)
tube-worm
Annelida, Polychaeta, Canalipalpata, Serpulidae Japan: Osaka Bay, Tokyo Bay East coast of North America Ship hull-fou Hard substrata in embayment shallow waters. Assemblage of
the worm is usually found in shallow subtidal hard substrata as well as other exotic tube-worms. It is distributed in wide range
of salinity conditions
Mortality of aquaculture shells and fishes
14 Russia Animals Pseudopotamilla occelata Fun worm Annelida, Polychaeta, Canalipalpata, Sabellidae Russia: Peter the Great Bay, Primorye, western
Sakhalin
Eastern Pacific Ballast wat Hard substrata in shallow waters Biofouling. Impact on bottom subtidal communities due to high dominance
15 China Animals Haliotis discus Disk abalone Mollusca, Archaeogastropoda, Haliotidae China: coastal areas of Dalian Japan Aquaculture and self dispersion Intertidal zone H. discus competes with native abalones and makes a competitive advantage, leading to decrease of the native abalone populations. It causes genetic diversity damage and contamination
16 China Animals Haliotis gigantea Giant abalone Mollusca, Archaeogastropoda, Haliotidae China: coastal areas of Liaoning and Shandong Japan, Korea Aquaculture and self dispersion Subtidally down to 10 m, hard bottom This species can hybridize and compete with native species, causing genetic diversity damage and contamination
17 China Animals Haliotis rufescens Red abalone Mollusca, Archaeogastropoda, Haliotidae China: coastal areas of Liaoning and Shandong West coast of North America and Mexico Aquaculture Embayments (rocky shore), exposed rocky shore, kelp forest, protected rocky shore H. rufescens does not adapt to the environment of the NOWPAP area, but hybrids of this species with other abalones can compete with native species causing genetic diversity damage
and contamination
18 China Animals Haliotis fulgens Green abalone Mollusca, Archaeogastropoda, Haliotidae China: Coastal areas of Liaoning and Shandong Tropical waters Aquaculture In shallow water, in open/exposed coast from low intertidal to at least 9 m and perhaps as deep as 18 m deep. Individuals are found in rock crevices, under rocks and other cryptic cavities H. fulgens does not adapt to the environment of NOWPAP area, but hybrids of this species with other abalones can compete with native species causing genetic diversity damage and contamination
19 Japan Animals Crepidula onyx Onyx boat-snail Mollusca, Gastropoda, Neotaenioglossa, Calyptraeidae Japan: Hokkaido, Miyagi and Fukushima Prefs,
Pacific coast from Chiba Pref. to Shikoku, Seto
Inland Sea, Northern Kyusyu, Ariake Inland Sea
Eastern Pacific Ship hull-fouling Subtidal living shells, rocks This sessile snail is commonly found in eutrophicated bay waters, usually on large snails
such as Rapana venosa, but it also occurs on the hard
substratum.
Unknown
20 Japan Animals Nassarius sinarus Chinese scavenger snail Mollusca, Gastropoda, Neogastropoda, Nassariidae Japan: Ariake Inland Sea, Seto Inland Sea China, Korea With imported aquaculture clams Intertidal and shallow subtidal sediment bottoms. This snail lives on intertidal mud flats and subtidal mud bottoms. It
crowds on fishes in fishermen’s bait traps, causing damage to the fishery
Predation on trapped fishes, possibly compete with native
scavenger snails
21 Japan Animals Euspira fortunei Black top-point moon snail Mollusca, Gastropoda, Sorbeoconcha, Naticidae Japan: Pacific coast from Aomori Pref. to Shizuoka
Pref., Seto Inland Sea, Ariake Sea
China, Korea With aquaculture imports Tidal flats. The moon-snail was unintentionally released in tidal flats with juvenile Asari clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) that were imported from China or Korea. In some tidal flats in Tohoku region, Asari clam fishing and recreational clam digging collapsed, due to high predation effect on the clam
populations by the moon-snail
Predation on fishery clams
22 Japan Animals Mytilus galloprovincialis Mediterranean blue mussel Mollusca, Bivalvia, Mytilidae Japan: All Japanese main islands, Okinawa
and Ogasawara islands
Mediterranean Sea Unintentional, via balast water and hull
fouling of ships
Intertidal and shallow subtidal concrete walls, rocks and aquaculture crafts. Pier walls and other port structures. Fishery rope, net, and other aquaculture facilities; Depth range is
intertidal to 5 m deep (mainly less than 3 m).
Biofouling, competition with native sessile organisms, genetic contamination with native mussels. Organic pollution by
deposited mussels. One of the most abundant sessile bivalves on hard substrata in enclosed waters. M. galloprovincialis can reduce the productivity of mussles, oysters, or sea squirt aquaculture by fouling aquaculture gear massively. Deposited dead mussels that were peeled off from concrete walls cause organic pollution in ports and bays
23 Korea Animals Mytilus galloprovincialis Mediterranean blue mussel Mollusca, Bivalvia, Mytilidae Korea Mediterranean Sea Unintentional, via balast water and hull
fouling of ships
Intertidal and shallow subtidal concrete walls, rocks and aquaculture crafts. Pier walls and other port structures. Fishery rope, net, and other aquaculture facilities; Depth range is
intertidal to 5 m deep (mainly less than 4 m).
Biofouling, competition with native sessile organisms, genetic contamination with native mussels. Organic pollution by
deposited mussels. One of the most abundant sessile bivalves on hard substrata in enclosed waters. M. galloprovincialis can reduce the productivity of mussles, oysters, or sea squirt aquaculture by fouling aquaculture gear massively. Deposited dead mussels that were peeled off from concrete walls cause organic pollution in ports and bays
24 Russia Animals Mytilus galloprovincialis Mediterranean blue mussel Mollusca, Bivalvia, Mytilidae Russia: Peter the Great Bay, Vladimira Bay,
Moneron Island
Mediterranean Sea Unintentional, via balast water and hull
fouling of ships
Intertidal and shallow subtidal concrete walls, rocks and aquaculture crafts. Pier walls and other port structures. Fishery rope, net, and other aquaculture facilities; Depth range is
intertidal to 5 m deep (mainly less than 5 m).
Biofouling, competition with native sessile organisms, genetic contamination with native mussels. Organic pollution by
deposited mussels. One of the most abundant sessile bivalves on hard substrata in enclosed waters. M. galloprovincialis can reduce the productivity of mussles, oysters, or sea squirt aquaculture by fouling aquaculture gear massively. Deposited dead mussels that were peeled off from concrete walls cause organic pollution in ports and bays
25 Japan Animals Perna viridis Green mussel Mollusca, Bivalvia, Mytilidae Japan: Yamagata Pref., Pacific coast from Chiba to Kagoshima prefs., north Kyushu, western Ryukyu Archipelago Indian Ocean, Southeast Asia Ship hull-fouling Intertidal and shallow subtidal concrete, rocks and aquaculture crafts. Abundantly occurs on the concrete walls in enclosed eutrophicated waters during late summer to early winter. Since native habitats of the mussel are in tropical and subtropical warm waters, they usually die in late winter under low temperature. However, overwintering mussels were found in and near warm-water outlet channels of electric power plants Biofouling, organic pollution by deposited mussels, competition with native sessile organisms
26 Japan Animals Xenostrobus securis Canal-wall mussel Mollusca, Bivalvia, Mytilidae Japan: Eastern half of Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu Oceania Ship hull-fouling Intertidal and subtidal concrete and rocks in estuarine and enclosed waters. It occurs in similar habitats of the Mediterranean blue mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis. However, it tends to be more abundant in estuarine intertidal hard substrata Biofouling, competition with native sessile organisms
27 Japan Animals Mytilopsis sallei Estuarine mussel; pseudo-blue-mussel Mollusca, Bivalvia, Dressenidae Japan: Kanto to Northern Kyushu Southeast Asia Ship hull-fouling, cargo fouling Estuarine in enclosed waters. Intertidal hard substratum in estuarine and enclosed waters. Occurrence of this mussel is restricted in lower saline waters in estuaries comparing with other exotic mussels. It is usually found in the intertidal zone Unknown
28 China Animals Argopecten irradians Atlantic bay scallop Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pectinidae China: coastal areas of Liaoning and Shandong Atlantic coast of both Americas (eastern Canada to Colombia) Aquaculture and self dispersion Shallow waters with rocky bottom A. irradians can hybridize with native species, causing genetic diversity damage and contamination of the native marine ecosystem
29 China Animals Mizuhopecten yessoensis Japanese scallop Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pectinidae China: coastal areas of north China,especially Liaoning and Shandong provinces. northern Japan, Russian part of the NOWPAP area and southern Sea of Okhotsk. Aquaculture and self dispersion In China, shallow waters (6–60 m deep) with high salinity This species can hybridize with native species causing genetic diversity damage and contamination of the native marine ecosystem
30 China Animals Crassostrea gigas Pacific oyster, Japanese oyster, giant oyster Mollusca, Bivalvia, Ostreidae China: All the coastal areas Japan?  Aquaculture and self dispersion C. gigas prefers to live on hard surfaces in sheltered waters within the intertidal zone. This species can survive in salinities between 10 and 32‰, and temperatures of –1 to 35º C. Pacific oysters may have diseases that would negatively affect other species, with no apparent negative effects on themselves. They can also hybridize with native species, causing genetic diversity damage and contamination of the native marine ecosystem. 
31 China Animals Mercenaria mercenaria Hard-shell clam; quahog Mollusca, Bivalvia, Veneridae China: coastal areas of Shandong  Western Atlantic Aquaculture and self-dispersion Intertidal and shallow fine-mud bottoms in estuarine and enclosed waters This species can hybridize and compete with native species causing genetic diversity damage and contamination of the native marine ecosystem
32 Japan Animals Mercenaria mercenaria Hard-shell clam; quahog Mollusca, Bivalvia, Veneridae Japan: Tokyo Bay, Osaka Bay.  Western Atlantic Aquaculture and self-dispersion Intertidal and shallow fine-mud bottoms in estuarine and enclosed waters This species can hybridize and compete with native species causing genetic diversity damage and contamination of the native marine ecosystem
33 China Animals Panopea japonica Pacific geoduck clam Mollusca, Bivalvia, Hiatellidae China: coastal areas of Shandong Northwest Pacific Ocean Aquaculture and self dispersion Mud, from intertidal zone to 110 m deep Unknown
34 Japan Animals Balanus glandula North American barnacle; Japanese name: Kita-amerika fujitubo Arthropoda, Maxillopoda, Thoracica, Sessilia, Balanidae Japan: Northern Pacific coasts from Hokkaido to Sanriku, and Mutsu Bay Pacific coast of North America Ship hull-fouling Hard substrata in ports.  Along the Pacific coast of North America, the barnacle B. glandula is one of the most common barnacle species on rocky intertidal shores. Exotic populations of this barnacle in Japanese waters have been reported after the year 2000. Unknown
35 Japan Animals Amphibalanus amphitrite ertical stripe barnacle Arthropoda, Maxillopoda, Thoracica, Sessilia, Balanidae Japan: Almost entire Japanese coasts, and Okinawa southwest Pacific and Indian Ocean Ship hull-fouling, ballast-water Intertidal concrete walls and rocks in embayment waters. One of the most dominant sessile animals on the intertidal hard substrata in enclosed waters in central to western Japan. It is shoreline species distributed from upper to mid intertidal zone; it inhabits intertidal hard substrates such as rocks, oyster bed, shell surface, ship bottom, pilings, seawalls and other hard substrates Compete with native barnacles, biofouling. B. amphitrite is a serious problem for ship hulls, buoy, and pilings. Probably some competition for space with native barnacles or other bio-fouling organisms. However, recent report suggested that B. amphitrite and the congener B. eburneus are capable of persisting side-by-side
36 Russia Animals Amphibalanus amphitrite ertical stripe barnacle Arthropoda, Maxillopoda, Thoracica, Sessilia, Balanidae Korea southwest Pacific and Indian Ocean Ship hull-fouling, ballast-water Intertidal concrete walls and rocks in embayment waters. One of the most dominant sessile animals on the intertidal hard substrata in enclosed waters in central to western Japan. It is shoreline species distributed from upper to mid intertidal zone; it inhabits intertidal hard substrates such as rocks, oyster bed, shell surface, ship bottom, pilings, seawalls and other hard substrates Compete with native barnacles, biofouling. B. amphitrite is a serious problem for ship hulls, buoy, and pilings. Probably some competition for space with native barnacles or other bio-fouling organisms. However, recent report suggested that B. amphitrite and the congener B. eburneus are capable of persisting side-by-side
37 Korea Animals Amphibalanus amphitrite ertical stripe barnacle Arthropoda, Maxillopoda, Thoracica, Sessilia, Balanidae Russia: Peter the Great Bay southwest Pacific and Indian Ocean Ship hull-fouling, ballast-water Intertidal concrete walls and rocks in embayment waters. One of the most dominant sessile animals on the intertidal hard substrata in enclosed waters in central to western Japan. It is shoreline species distributed from upper to mid intertidal zone; it inhabits intertidal hard substrates such as rocks, oyster bed, shell surface, ship bottom, pilings, seawalls and other hard substrates Compete with native barnacles, biofouling. B. amphitrite is a serious problem for ship hulls, buoy, and pilings. Probably some competition for space with native barnacles or other bio-fouling organisms. However, recent report suggested that B. amphitrite and the congener B. eburneus are capable of persisting side-by-side
38 Japan Animals Amphibalanus improvisus European barnacle Arthropoda, Maxillopoda, Thoracica, Sessilia, Balanidae Japan: Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu North Atlantic Ship hull-fouling and ballast water Hard substrata in estuary and embayment waters. The European barnacle tends to be abundant in eutrophicated brackish waters. Habitats are partially overlapped with the American barnacle that tends to prefer more saline waters than the European barnacle. Attached to rocks and other hard substrata such as submerged wood, ship hulls, and oyster or mussel shells. Frequently found in lagoons in Gangwon Province (Korea). Fouling organism. It is common fouler caused to large aggregations on a variety of harbor structures, aquaculture gears, and ship hulls. Space competition is likely to occur with other hard fouling species. It can causes fouling of water intake pipes and heat exchangers
39 Russia Animals Amphibalanus improvisus European barnacle Arthropoda, Maxillopoda, Thoracica, Sessilia, Balanidae Russia: Peter the Great Bay North Atlantic Ship hull-fouling and ballast water Hard substrata in estuary and embayment waters. The European barnacle tends to be abundant in eutrophicated brackish waters. Habitats are partially overlapped with the American barnacle that tends to prefer more saline waters than the European barnacle. Attached to rocks and other hard substrata such as submerged wood, ship hulls, and oyster or mussel shells. Frequently found in lagoons in Gangwon Province (Korea). Fouling organism. It is common fouler caused to large aggregations on a variety of harbor structures, aquaculture gears, and ship hulls. Space competition is likely to occur with other hard fouling species. It can causes fouling of water intake pipes and heat exchangers
40 Korea Animals Amphibalanus improvisus European barnacle Arthropoda, Maxillopoda, Thoracica, Sessilia, Balanidae Korea North Atlantic Ship hull-fouling and ballast water Hard substrata in estuary and embayment waters. The European barnacle tends to be abundant in eutrophicated brackish waters. Habitats are partially overlapped with the American barnacle that tends to prefer more saline waters than the European barnacle. Attached to rocks and other hard substrata such as submerged wood, ship hulls, and oyster or mussel shells. Frequently found in lagoons in Gangwon Province (Korea). Fouling organism. It is common fouler caused to large aggregations on a variety of harbor structures, aquaculture gears, and ship hulls. Space competition is likely to occur with other hard fouling species. It can causes fouling of water intake pipes and heat exchangers
41 Japan Animals Amphibalanus eburneus American barnacle Arthropoda, Maxillopoda, Thoracica, Sessilia, Balanidae Japan: Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu West Atlantic Ship hull-fouling and ballast water. Concrete walls and rocks in estuaries and embayment waters. The American barnacle occurs in brackish and enclosed waters in Japan. This species sometimes competes with the European barnacle, but tends to be abundant in more saline waters compared with the European barnacle. Attached massively to the hard substrates such as rocks, oyster beds, shell surfaces, ship bottom, buoys B. ebruneus is a serious problem as fouling organism on ship hulls, buoys, and dock pilings. Space competition is likely to occur with native barnacle B. trigonus or other hard fouling species; however, recent report suggested that B. eburneus and the congener B. amphitrite are capable of persisting side-by-side
42 Korea Animals Amphibalanus eburneus American barnacle Arthropoda, Maxillopoda, Thoracica, Sessilia, Balanidae Korea West Atlantic Ship hull-fouling and ballast water. Concrete walls and rocks in estuaries and embayment waters. The American barnacle occurs in brackish and enclosed waters in Japan. This species sometimes competes with the European barnacle, but tends to be abundant in more saline waters compared with the European barnacle. Attached massively to the hard substrates such as rocks, oyster beds, shell surfaces, ship bottom, buoys B. ebruneus is a serious problem as fouling organism on ship hulls, buoys, and dock pilings. Space competition is likely to occur with native barnacle B. trigonus or other hard fouling species; however, recent report suggested that B. eburneus and the congener B. amphitrite are capable of persisting side-by-side
43 Japan Animals Megabalanus coccopoma Titan acorn barnacle Arthropoda, Maxillopoda, Thoracica, Sessilia, Balanidae Japan: Iwate Prefecture to Tokyo Bay, Sagami Bay, Izu Peninsula, Kii Peninsula, Seto Inland Sea, Kochi Prefecture Tropical East Pacific Ship hull-fouling Shallow concrete and rocks, buoys. This barnacle occurs on subtidal rocks and aquaculture ropes in open and enclosed waters Unknown
44 Korea Animals Perforatus perforatus Perforate barnacle Arthropoda, Maxillopoda, Thoracica, Sessilia, Balanidae Korea This species is an eastern Atlantic warm-water species, occuring commonly in the Mediterranean. Its range extends southward to the north-western coast of Africa. unintentional, via balastwater and hull fouling of ships Lower tidal species distributed from Gangneung to Pusan in only harbor condition; mainly attached to the hard substrates such as dock pilings (or wall), buoys, and other hard substrates in harbor Fouling organism. It is common fouler caused to large aggregations on a variety of harbor structures such as dock pilings, buoys, and other hard substrates. May not spread to natural rocky shore and small harbor. Space competition is likely to occur among B. perforatus and other barnacles or other hard fouling species
45 Japan Animals Paracerceis sculpta Horn tail sea-cicada Arthropoda, Crustacea, Isopoda, Sphaeromatidae Japan: Ehime Prefecture, Osaka Bay East Pacific Ship hull-fouling Intertidal and shallow subtidal artificial substrata and artificial sandy beaches Unknown
46 Russia Animals Portunus sanguinolentus Blood-spotted swimming crab Arthropoda, Malacostraca, Decapoda, Portunidae Russia: Peter the Great Bay Tropical Indo-Pacific drifting buoys This tropical species occurs only in warm seasons with transported marine litter that serves as substrate for crabs and other organisms. Unknown
47 Russia Animals Plagusia depressa tuberculata Scaly rock crab Arthropoda, Malacostraca, Decapoda, Plagusiidae Russia: Peter the Great Bay Tropical Indo-Pacific Drifting buoys This tropical species occurs only in warm seasons with transported marine litter that serves as substrate for crabs and other organisms Unknown
48 Japan Animals Pyromaia tuberculata Single-horn spider crab, American spider crab Arthropoda, Malacostraca, Decapoda, Majidae. Japan: Pacific coast from Sendai to Yamaguchi including Seto Inland Sea, northern Kyushu, Ariake Bay East Pacific Ballast water and ship hull-fouling Sand and mud shallow bottoms in enclosed waters. This crab abundantly occurs on subtidal bottom in eutrophicated enclosed waters where summer hypoxia tends to be severe. Rapid growth (reach maturity within 3 months after hatched) and omniseasonal breeding (breeds throughout the year) supports quick recovery of local populations which had disappeared by summer hypoxia Unknown
49 Japan Animals Rhithropanopeus harrisii Estuarine mud crab, Harris mud crab  Arthropoda, Malacostraca, Decapoda, Panopeidae. Japan: Ise Bay, Osaka Bay, Tokyo Bay  West Atlantic Ship hull-fouling Enclosed low saline waters. This crab was abundantly found in brackish-water ports in enclosed areas. A small number of the crab was also found in upper small estuaries. Unknown
50 Japan Animals Carcinus aestuarii Mediterranean green crab Arthropoda, Malacostraca, Decapoda, Portunidae Japan: Pacific coast from Tokyo Bay to Osaka Bay, northern Kyushu Mediterranean Sea Ballast water, ship hull-fouling Artificial canals, ports and cobble shores. The green crab occurs on shores in brackish and eutrophicated enclosed waters, such as ports and artificial channels in urbanized bays. The crab migrates offshore to the bay bottom during winter when it breeds, but comes back to the shore in spring and stays there during warmer seasons. This migratory pattern is very well adapted to survive in eutrophicated waters, as the crab can avoid being captured in summer-hypoxic bottom water Unknown
51 Russia Animals Diogenes nitidimanus Sand-dwelling hermit crab Arthropoda, Malacostraca, Decapoda, Diogenidae Russia: Peter the Great Bay Japan Ballast water This hermit crab’s settlement was found in the estuarine part of Vostok Bay (eastern Peter the Great Bay) on a silty bottom at a depth of 2–3 m; the hermit crabs inhabits shells of the gastropod mollusks Batillaria cumingii, Linatia pallida, Littorina squalida, and Umbonium costatum (Korn et al., 2007). The larva of the hermit crab was found in the ballast waters of the tanker Minotaur that arrived from the Chinese port of Laizhou (Yellow Sea) (Zvyagintsev, Kornienko, 2008) Unknown
52 China Animals Litopenaeus stylirostris Blue shrimp Arthropoda, Malacostraca, Decapoda, Penaeidae China: coastal areas of Shandong and Jiangsu Eastern Pacific Aquaculture and self-dispersion Sandy, muddy bottom in subtidal zone The species can hybridize and compete with native species, causing genetic diversity damage and contamination of the native marine ecosystem
53 China Animals Litopenaeus vannamei White shrimp Arthropoda, Malacostraca, Decapoda, Penaeidae China: Jiangsu Province. East coast of the Pacific Ocean  Aquaculture and self-dispersion Muddy bottom, 0-72 m deep Imported white shrimps often carry pathogens leading to a shrimp disease. Farming white shrimps in pools also cause salinization of land
54 China Animals Marsupenaeus japonicus  Kuruma prawn Arthropoda, Malacostraca, Decapoda, Penaeidae China: coastal areas of the north China Japan Aquaculture and self dispersion Sandy and muddy bottom in coastal waters usually less than 30 m deep This species can hybridize and compete with native species causing genetic diversity damage and contamination of the native marine ecosystem
55 Russia Animals Monocorophium acherusicum Mediterranean corophiid, tube-building amphipod Arthropoda, Malacostraca, Amphipoda, Corophiidae Russia: Peter the Great Bay Atlantic Ballast water, ship fouling This species was first found in Peter the Great Bay only as a component of fouling communities (Zevina, Gorin, 1975) and then was recorded in benthic communities in southwestern Peter the Great Bay and around the mouth of the Tumen River (Budnikova, 2001) M. acherusicum was found in the fouling of the water cooling system on Heat and Power Station No. 2 of Vladivostok (Zvyagintsev, Budnikova, 2003)
56 Korea Animals Bugula neritina Brown bryozoan Bryozoa, Gymnolaemata, Cheilostomata, Bugulidae Korea Western Atlantic unintentional, via balastwater and hull fouling of ships Submerged rope, fishery net, other aquaculture gears; harbor or marine structures and ship bottoms; natural rocks from lower intertidal to more than 20 m deep Fouling organism. B. neritina populations may tolerate high levels of pollution (including copper) which increases its potential to be a fouling pest. It is a common fouling organism growing in large aggregations on a variety of harbor structures, aquaculture gears, and ship hulls. Space competition is unclear but likely to occur with other fouling species
57 Japan Animals Bugula stolonifera   Bryozoa, Gymnolaemata, Cheilostomata, Bugulidae Japan: Tokyo Bay, Ise Bay, Osaka Bay  Unknown Ship hull-fouling Artificial hard substrata in enclosed waters, in ports and canals Unknown
58 Korea Animals Bugula californica Spiral bryozoan Bryozoa, Gymnolaemata, Cheilostomata, Bugulidae Korea British Columbia to the Galapagos Islands, Hawaii unintentional, via balastwater and hull fouling of ships Harbor or marina structures and ship hulls; aquaculture facilities such as submerged rope, fishery net, other culture gears; attached to rocks, sponges, macroalgal species, and invertebrate surfaces from lower intertidal to mainly below 10 m deep Fouling organism. It lives in large aggregations on a variety of harbor structures, aquaculture gears, and ship hulls. Space competition is unclear but likely to occur with other hard fouling species in the minor level
59 Korea Animals Tricellaria occidentalis    Bryozoa, Gymnolaemata, Cheilostomata, Scrupocellariidae  Korea California, and possibly British Columbia and Baja California unintentional, hull fouling of ships and balast water Intertidal to 40 m deep in fouling communities, on hard substrates and algae Fouling organism. It lives in large aggregations on a variety of harbor structures, aquaculture gears, and ship hulls. Space competition is unclear but likely to occur with other hard fouling species in the minor level
60 Russia Animals Conopeum seurati   Bryozoa, Gymnolaemata, Cheilosromatida, Electridae Russia: Peter the Great Bay Eastern Atlantic Ship hull fouling Fouling organism. It lives on hard substrata in the upper subtidal zone Unknown
61 Russia Animals Schizoporella unicornis Orange encrusting bryozoan Bryozoa, Gymnolaemata, Cheilosromatida, Schizoporellidae Russia: Peter the Great Bay   Ship hull fouling Fouling organism. It lives on hard substrata in the upper subtidal zone Unknown
62 China Animals Strongylocentrotus intermidus Grey sea urchin Echinodermata, Echinoidea, Camarodonta, Strongylocentrotidae China: Coastal areas of Dalian and Rongcheng, Shandong Japan, Russian Far East Aquaculture and self dispersion rocky intertidal zone and ypper subtidal zones, 0–50 m This species competes with native species for food and living space
63 Korea Animals Styella plicata Pleated sea squirt, rough sea squirt Chordata, Ascidacea, Pleurogona, Styelidae Korea Indo-Pacific Ballast water, hull fouling of ships, live bivalve for aquaculture Aquaculture cages, rope, net and other man-made facilities; also found on pier walls and other harbor constructions. It may not spread to natural rocky shore.  Commonly attached from surface to 5 m deep S. plicata is an aquaculture species in Korea. It is widespread in the southern coast of Korea and common fouler of aquaculture rope, net, and other floating or submerged man-made structures. It is also a common fouling organism of harbor constructions
64 Korea Animals Ciona intestinalis Sea vase Chordata, Ascidacea, Euterogona, Cionidae Korea northern Atlantic Hull fouling of ships, ballast water, live aquaculture organisms Aquaculture gear, farming organism surfaces; pier walls and other harbor or marina structures; it may not spread to natural rocky shore, however, sometimes observed in the natural rocky shore near sea farm, marina, and harbor. It is found from the lower intertidal down to at least 10 m deep Fouling organism. Ecological impact unstudied, but space competition is likely to occur with native or non-native invertebrates on the artificial constructions. C. intestinalis can reduce the productivity of mussel, oyster, or sea squirt  farming by fouling aquaculture gear
65 Russia Animals Ciona savignyi Pacific transparent sea squirt, solitary sea squirt Chordata, Ascidacea, Euterogona, Cionidae Russia: Peter the Great Bay Japan Hull fouling of ships Hard substrata in the upper subtidal zone, including mussel shell surface Fouling organism
66 Japan Animals Molgula manhattensis Sea grape; Manhattan tunicate  Chordata, Ascidiacea, Pleurogona, Molgulidae Japan: Pacific coast from Tokyo Bay and southward, northern Kyushu Northeast and northwest Atlantic Ship hull fouling Subtidal hard substrata in estuarine and enclosed waters. This tunicate is occasionally found on artificial substrata and introduced mussels in enclosed waters. It tends to be abundant during colder seasons Fouling organism. It competes with aquaculture bivalves
67 Japan Animals Molgula manhattensis Sea grape; Manhattan tunicate  Chordata, Ascidiacea, Pleurogona, Molgulidae Russia: Peter the Great Bay Northeast and northwest Atlantic Ship hull fouling Subtidal hard substrata in estuarine and enclosed waters. This tunicate is occasionally found on artificial substrata and introduced mussels in enclosed waters. It tends to be abundant during colder seasons Fouling organism. It competes with aquaculture bivalves
68 Japan Animals Polyandrocarpa zorritensis Black Polyandrocarpa tunicate Chordata, Ascidiacea, Enterogona, Ascidiidae Japan: Toyama Bay, Izu Peninsula, Osaka Bay, southeastern Shikoku, Dokai Bay Unknown Ship hull-fouling or ballast water Subtidal hard substrata in port waters. This tunicate forms dense colony on artificial hard substrata in enclosed subtidal waters Compete with native sessile species
69 Japan Animals Ascidiella aspersa European rough-surface tunicate Chordata, Ascidiacea, Enterogona, Ascidiidae Japan: Funka Bay, Hokkaido and Northeastern Pacific coasts Europe Unknown Aquaculture gear. This tunicate aggregatively grows on scallop shells, causing damage of scallop aquaculture Damage on scallop aquaculture
70 China Animals Halocynthia roretzi sea squirt Chordata, Ascidiacea, Stolidobranchia, Pyuridae China: Coastal areas of Liaoning and Shandong   Aquaculture and self dispersion Upper subtidal rocky coast, 10−20 m deep Affecting aquaculture
71 Japan Animals Lateolabrax sp Continental sea bass, Lateolabrax sp Chordata, Pisces, Actinopterygii, Perciformes, Lateolabracidae Japan: Central to western Japan China Import for aquaculture Coastal waters. This imported Chinese bass have been cultured in the western part of the Japanese main islands. Amateur fishermen often catch basses in natural waters. These basses may have escaped from culturing nets. A scientific species name of the bass has not been given  Predation on small fishes, compete with native sea bass
72 China Animals Oncorhynchus kisutch Coho salmon, silver salmon Chordata, Pisces, Actinopterygii, Salmoniformes, Salmonidae China: Liaoning Province Northern Pacific Aquaculture and self-dispersion River and ocean with cold water. Anadromous species; born in freshwater, spends most of life in sea. The species with biological advantage may compete with native species, causing genetic diversity damage and contamination
73 China Animals Oncorhynchus mykiss Rainbow trout, steelhead trout Chordata, Pisces, Actinopterygii, Salmoniformes, Salmonidae China: Liaoning and Shandong provinces North Pacific Aquaculture River and ocean with cold and clean water The species with biological advantage may compete with native species, causing genetic diversity damage and contamination
74 China Animals Salmo salar Atlantic salmon, black salmon, parr Chordata, Pisces, Actinopterygii, Salmoniformes, Salmonidae China: Liaoning Province Atlantic Aquaculture River and ocean with cold water Atlantic salmon has biological advantages in competing with native species. Reared Atlantic salmons also transmit diseases to wild salmons when they escape
75 China Animals Paralichthys dentatus Summer flounder, large-tooth flounder, arrow-tooth flounder Chordata, Pisces, Actinopterygii, Pleuronectiformes, Paralichthyidae China: Coastal areas of Shandong Northwest Atlantic Aquaculture, self-dispersion Central and shallow areas of bays, seaweed beds, muddy, sandy bottoms This species with biological advantage may compete with native species, causing genetic diversity damage and contamination
76 China Animals Paralichthys lethostigma Southern flounder Chordata, Pisces, Actinopterygii, Pleuronectiformes, Paralichthyidae China: all coastal regions Northwest Atlantic Aquaculture, self-dispersion Estuaries and bays in spring and summer, open ocean in autumn and winter This species with biological advantage may compete with native species, causing  genetic diversity damage and contamination
77 China Animals Verasper moseri Barfin flounder Chordata, Pisces, Actinopterygii, Pleuronectiformes, Pleuronectidae China: Waters to east of northern China    Aquaculture, self-dispersion Shallow water areas with sandy substrate This species can compete with native species
78 China Animals Solea senegalensis Senegalese sole Chordata, Pisces, Actinopterygii, Pleuronectiformes, Soleidae China: Shandong Province Eastern Atlantic Aquaculture, self-dispersion Lagoons and other shallow waters with muddy substrate This species with biological advantage may compete with native species
79 China Animals Solea solea Common sole, Dover sole, slip Chordata, Pisces, Actinopterygii, Pleuronectiformes, Soleidae China: Shandong Province Eastern Atlantic Aquaculture, self dispersion Shallow waters (0–150 m), sandy or mudddy bottom This species with biological advantage may compete with native species
80 China Animals Anguilla anguilla European eel Chordata, Pisces, Actinopterygii, Anguilliformes, Anguillidae China: Jiangsu Province   Aquaculture, self-dispersion Marine environment for juveniles, rivers and streams for adult fishes. Muddy bottom The MIS with biological advantage may compete with native species
81 China Animals Anguilla rostrata American eel Chordata, Pisces, Actinopterygii, Anguilliformes, Anguillidae Jiangsu Province   Aquaculture, self-dispersion Marine environment for juveniles, rivers and steams for adult fishes. Muddy and sandy bottom, depth range 0−464 m This species with biological advantage may compete with native species
82 China Animals Morone saxatilis Striped bass Chordata, Pisces, Actinopterygii, Perciformes, Moronidae Shandong Province Atlantic Aquaculture, self-dispersion Benthic anadromous species. Estuarine environment for juveniles, shallow coastal waters for adult fishes Competing with native species
83 China Animals Sciaenops ocellatus Red drum, channel bass Chordata, Pisces, Actinopterygii, Perciformes, Sciaenidae Shandong Province Northwest Atlantic Aquaculture, self-dispersion Shallow waters down to 30–40 m deep with muddy, sandy or rocky bottom Competing with native species